Comparable to ‘Project Apollo’ and ‘Manhattan Project’ in last century, brain projects became a national-wide arena for scientific frontiers at the beginning of the 21st century. Of note, the most recent decade paralleled the remarkable development of the non-invasive and in-vivo human brain imaging technologies. Especially, the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have made significant progresses on the basic research for understanding brain mechanisms of the human behavior as well as their applications. This generated huge amount of in-vivo imaging data of the human brain and waved a new cycle of neuroinformatic research frontiers in life sciences, leading to ‘open neuroscience’ or ‘open brain science’ by sharing the big imaging data to the public. This culture transformation harnesses population science for developmental cognitive neuroscience, giving a birth of new direction, namely ‘Developmental Population Neuroscience‘. A review paper has been accepted to be published in the special issue on ‘Toward Developmental Population Neuroscience (DPN)’ of the SCIENTIA SINICA Vitae. These data resources are also introduced during the OHBM 2021. I am building the graduate course ‘Developmental Population Neuroscience‘.